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蘇州納米所等在石墨烯氣凝膠領域取得進展

文章來源:蘇州納米技術與納米仿生研究所   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  石墨烯氣凝膠,經由石墨烯片層三維搭接、組裝而來的石墨烯宏觀體材料,具有三維連續多孔網絡結構,表現出高比表面積、高孔隙率、優異導電性能及電化學行為,在能源存儲、傳感、吸附、復合材料等領域有重要應用前景。然而,目前常規石墨烯氣凝膠的三維組裝以石墨烯片層間的“面-面”局部搭接方式為主,進而形成具有三維無規連續多孔網絡。石墨烯片層間的這種“面-面”堆垛-搭接方式,是一種無規、隨機組裝,往往會使得部分石墨烯片層形成類石墨結構,造成石墨烯本征性能(如比表面積、力學、電學等)損失。此外,傳統石墨烯氣凝膠所具有的這種無規三維多孔網絡還引入高界面電阻及曲折離子通道問題,對電化學行為中的電荷-離子傳輸及有效電化學活性面積維持帶來負面影響,成為制約石墨烯材料在電化學能源器件中應用的瓶頸。因此,如何設計新的石墨烯組裝策略,制備高性能石墨烯氣凝膠材料,仍是一個重要挑戰。

  針對石墨烯氣凝膠目前存在的問題,中國科學院蘇州納米技術與納米仿生研究所研究員張學同領導的氣凝膠團隊通過“局部氧化刻蝕”在氧化石墨烯片層上進行造孔,獲得孔洞氧化石墨烯,隨后將孔洞氧化石墨烯與還原劑分散液高度濃縮,實現其液晶化,進一步經原位溶膠凝膠及超臨界干燥獲得各向異性“孔洞石墨烯”氣凝膠,如圖所示。所得各向異性“孔洞石墨烯”氣凝膠由孔洞石墨烯片層經有序排列而成,表現出規整的三維多孔網絡(規整的孔道/孔壁及孔壁上的大量微孔)、低密度(42-55 mg cm-3)、高導電性(~165 S m-1)、高比表面積(537~837 m2 g-1)等諸多優點。最后將該氣凝膠作為電極材料,輔以共晶混合物“水-甲酰胺”作為低溫電解液,構建出可在溫度低至零下40°C的環境中正常工作的柱狀低溫熱電化學池,表現出低離子傳輸阻力(15.7 Ω)及高輸出功率(3.6 W m-2)。當15個熱電化學池進行串聯組裝成器件時,可實現~2.1 V電壓的穩定輸出,在低溫能源器件應用中表現出重要應用前景。

  相關成果以High-Efficiency Cryo-Thermocells Assembled with Anisotropic Holey Graphene Aerogel Electrodes and a Eutectic Redox Electrolyte 為題發表在國際期刊《先進材料》(Advanced Materials20191901403)上。博士生李廣勇、碩士董大鵬及澳門大學教授洪果為論文共同第一作者,張學同與英國UCL教授宋文輝為論文共同通訊作者,合作者還包括中國科學技術大學教授閆立峰。論文工作獲得國家重點研發計劃、國家自然科學基金委、英國皇家學會-牛頓高級學者基金等資助。

  圖:各向異性“孔洞石墨烯”氣凝膠基本表征:氧化石墨烯片層的透射電鏡照片(a1)及氧化石墨烯液晶的偏光顯微鏡照片(b1),孔洞氧化石墨烯片層的透射電鏡照片(a2)及氧化石墨烯液晶的偏光顯微鏡照片(b2),氧化石墨烯及孔洞氧化石墨烯片層的拉曼光譜(c),各向異性“孔洞石墨烯”氣凝膠的光學照片(d)、掃描電鏡照片(ef)、力學(g)、電學(h)及比表面積數據(i)。




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